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Exodus Study

by Zach Baker

Exodus 6:2-7 (New King James Version)
2 And God spoke to Moses and said to him: “I am the Lord”
3 I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, as God Almighty, but
by My name Lord I was not known to them.
4 I have also established My covenant with them, to give them the land
of Canaan, the land of their pilgrimage, in which they were strangers.
5 And I have also heard the groaning of the children of Israel whom the
Egyptians keep in bondage, and I have remembered My covenant.
6 Therefore say to the children of Israel: ‘I am the Lord; I will bring you
out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, I will rescue you from
their bondage, and I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and
with great judgments.
7 I will take you as My people, and I will be your God. Then you shall
{know} that I am the Lord your God who brings you out from under the
burdens of the Egyptians.

6:2
Spoke waydabber (dabar) Strong’s H1696

  • to say, speak, tell, command, promise.
  • -a general term for verbal communication
  • -both human and divine activity of speaking.
  • “It is a theological imperative that God’s people use their speech in such a way that reflects the
    “dabar” of God.” (William Mounce)
    Exodus 6:2: And God spoke (waydab*ber) to Moses and said to him: “I am the Lord”
    *Genesis 8:15-16:Then God spoke (waydabbêr) to Noah, saying, 16) “Go out of the ark, you and your
    wife, and your sons and your son’s wives with you.”
    Genesis 12:4: So Abram departed as the Lord had spoken (dibber) to him, and Lot went with him.
    And Abram was seventy-five years old when he departed from Haran.
    6:2: Commentary

1) Ramban writes, “But Myself, I the Eternal did not make myself known to them {the Patriarchs} , as
they did not contemplate Me through a lucid speculum so that they should know me.”
2) Rashi: “I am the LORD, who am faithful to recompense with full reward those who walk before
me.”
3) Sforno : “ The ONE who maintains the entire universe all alone…I have not only called it into
existence, but I also maintain it, and there is no other prime cause which exercises any independent
influence on any part of My universe. “
4) Ha-Amek Davar illustrates thus: “(I am Adonoy)”: “this teaches us that the entire world is
perpetuated by Ha’Shem utilizing Divine Providence:
A house, for example: once it has been built the builder ceases to work and it stands on its own; The
world continues to exist only because Ha’Shem keeps it in existence.”

6:3
appeared waera (raah) Strong’s H7200

  • -to see, look at, perceive, consider, discern, distinguish, give attention to, to present oneself, be
    visible (to be exhibited to)
  • -“Captures the essence of the relationship between God and human beings. (Interaction,
    revelation)”. (Mounce)
    *Exodus 6:3 (a): “I appeared (waera) to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob as God Almighty…..”
    *Genesis 8:5 : And the waters decreased continually until the tenth month. In the tenth month, on the
    first day of the month, the tops of the mountains were seen (nir* ‘ū)
    Genesis 8:8 : He also sent out from himself a dove, to see (lirō*wt) if the waters has receded from the
    face of the ground.
    *Genesis 8:13 : And it came to pass in the six hundred and first year, in the first month, the first day of
    the month, the waters were dried up from the earth; and Noah removed the covering of the ark and
    looked (way*yar) , and indeed the surface of the ground was dry.
    *Genesis 12:1 : Now the Lord had said to Abram: “Get out of your country, from your family and from
    your father’s house, to a land that I will show (‘ar’ekā) you.”
    Genesis 12:7 : Then the Lord appeared (wayyerā) to Abram and said, “ To your descendants I will give this land.” And there he built an altar to the Lord who had appeared (hannir*’eh) to him.
    *Genesis 12:12 : “Therefore it will happen, when the Egyptians see (yir*u) you, that they will say “This is
    his wife; and they will kill me,’ but they will let you live.”
    *Genesis 12:14-15 : 14) So it was when Abram came into Egypt, that they Egyptians saw (wayir’u) the
    woman, that she was very beautiful. 15) The princes of Pharaoh also saw (wayyir’u) her and
    commended her to Pharaoh. And the woman was taken to Pharaoh’s house.

known nōwdati (yada) Strong’s H3045

  • -denotes the process of gaining knowledge; the mental synthesis of facts gleaned through
    sensory experience
  • -legal sphere: a witness who has seen or learned something would be under obligation to testify
  • -sensory and intellectual experience aspects are both valid and necessary.
  • “(In Jewish thought: )Eyes and ears are considered essential for the mind (i.e. “heart” )(lēb), the
    heart being the place of cognitive activity, thus the ability “to know” is related to one’s heart.
    ALL of humanity’s knowledge is a gift from God, and this does not negate the effort required to
    acquire knowledge..{“ to search out the truth”, as emphasized in Wisdom Literature.}”.
    (Mounce)
    Exodus 6:3 (b) … “but by my name {YHWH} I was not known (nōwdati) to them.”
    Genesis 8:11 : Then the dove came to him in the evening, and behold, a freshly plucked olive leaf was in her mouth; and Noah knew (wayyê*da) that the waters had receded from the earth.
    6:3 Commentary
    1) (from Kabbalah: Zohar, Vaera (1:1) : “Rabbi Abba opened the discussion saying, ‘Trust in
    Ha’Shem forever, for Yah Ha’Shem is an everlasting rock. (Isaiah 26:4). ‘Trust in Ha’Shem ‘
    means that all the people of the world have to strengthen themselves in the Holy One, blesses
    be He, and trust in Him.”
    2) (from Midrash Shemot Rabbah ) : “And I appeared to Avraham’- The Holy One of Blessing said
    to Moshe: ‘a pity on those who disappear and are not remembered, many times I revealed to
    Avraham , Yitzchak and Yaakov as El Sheddai and I did not make myself known that my name is
    {{{YHWH}}} as I told you, but also they did not search for my attributes.”
    3) (from Midrash Tanchuma Buber) : “I did not proclaim it to them even if it was pronounced, but
    to you I have revealed it because you are going to redeem Israel, so as to make them prosper.”.
    The Holy One said : ‘In this world I have revealed my name to individuals, but in the world to
    come, I am making my name known to all Israel. “(Isaiah 52:6)
    6:4
    established haqimotî (quwm) Strong’s 6965
  • -to get up, arise, stand, (establish), confirm, restore; to raise up/to be raised up/to raise up
    against. “To get up, as getting up in the morning “; to confirm something. “To survive/continue
  • -“God’s passion for justice is seen in situations that galvanize Him to action; {God arising to help
    the needy; God establishing a covenant}”(Mounce)
  • {Observation}: Thus, it is necessary to arise to the action/activity which God demands of His
    covenant people. After all, we come to God on God’s terms. }}
    *Exodus 6:4: “ I have also established (haqimotî) my covenant with them, to give them the land of
    Canaan, the land of their pilgrimage, in which they were strangers.”

Genesis 17:7: “And I will establish (wahaqimo*ti) my covenant between Me and you and your
descendants after you in their generations, for an everlasting covenant, to be God to you and your
descendants after you.”
*Genesis 17:19 : Then God said, “No, Sarah your wife shall bear a son, and you shall call his name Isaac;
I will establish (wahaqiti) My covenant with him for an everlasting covenant, and with his
descendants after him.”
Genesis 17:21 : “ But my covenant I will establish ( ‘aqîm) . Sarah shall bear to you at this set time
next year.”
6:4 Commentary
1) Ibn Ezra: “And I have also established” (etc.). “I have also sent you because I have established
my covenant with the Patriarchs to give the land of Canaan to them or to their children who are
their equivalent.
WHY?
2) Kaballah Zohar, Vaera: “This is because they were circumcised …For the land is inherited only by
a righteous person, and everyone who is circumcised is called righteous (Isaiah 60:21)
3) Ha’amek Davar: “…The land of their sojourning..”: “I promised them the Land because it is the
land of their sojourning AND they have become accustomed to Divine Providence in it, and NOT
solely because it is a land of milk and honey….I promised this to their sons , for it is MY WILL to
watch over them.”
6:5
heard samati (shama) Strong’s H8085.

  • to hear, listen, pay attention to, perceive, obey
  • -to hear sounds with the ear; perceive /understand; to heed: “spiritual perception “
  • -“In the Shema, God wearies of Israel’s persistent sin; {a feature of Shema} is that it highlights
    the distinction between hearing and understanding. {A model for this virtue is that } God hears
    and thus acts. (i.e. answers). “ (Mounce)
    *Exodus 6:5 a : “I have also heard (samatî) the groaning of the children of Israel whom the Egyptians
    keep in bondage…”
    *Genesis 17:20 : “And as for Ishmael , I have heard (sema’tîkā) you. Behold, I have blessed him, and will
    make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly. He shall beget twelve princes, and I will make him a
    great nation.”
    remembered wāezkōr (zakar) Strong’s H2142
  • -to remember/be remembered/bring to remembrance; to commemorate, consider, mention/be
    mentioned ; to remind
  • -“Remembering can occur either with God or human beings as the subject. Memory may trigger
    many reactions in the Bible and in our daily lives. Memory may even bring about pain. {A caveat,
    however, is that} memory also can have positive effects; remembering can be a call to action for

humanity AND for God. When God is called upon to remember something, God goes into action
despite our disobedience!” (Mounce)
*Exodus 6:5 b : ….”and I have remembered (wāezkōr) my covenant.”
*Genesis 8:1 : Then God remembered ( wāezkōr ) Noah, and every living thing, and all the animals that
were with him in the ark. And God made a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters subsided.
6:5 Commentary
1) Siftei Chakhamim, Ex. 6:5:1. “Since I have revealed Myself to them as Almighty Shaddai and
established a covenant with them, and therefore I also must fulfill it, consequently I have
heard.”
{6:5:2} “Rashi explains that it is impossible to fulfill the promise to give them Eretz Yisrael until
after the exodus from Egypt.”… “I have promised to give them Eretz Yisrael, therefore I have
remembered also, ‘I will judge the nation’ (Genesis 15:14) -both promises were made at the
same time. “
2) Tur HaArokh : “moreover I have heard..” “ they have repented their ways and seem fit to appeal
to Me. Hence, just as I endure forever, so my promise will be in effect until carried out.”
3) Kaballah: Zohar, Noach 29:224 “Come and behold: during the time when the wrath of
Judgement was raging throughout the world, Noach was not mentioned. (But , as the scriptures
say,) after the judgement was completed, ‘And Elohim remembered Noach. (Similarity to ‘And I
remembered my covenant.’)”

6:6
bring howseti (yasa) Strong’s H3318

  • -to go out/come out; lead forth, produce; to be brought out, emptied; to go forward (proceed
    toward)
  • -“Often refers to the Lord’s ‘going out’ to assist His people (i.e. bringing His people out of Egypt)
    but in the sense of ‘departing’, may also refer to God’s abandonment of His people (Ezekiel
    10:18).” (Mounce)
    *Exodus 6:6 a : “Therefore, say to the children of Israel: ‘I AM the LORD.’ I will bring (howseti) you out
    from under the burdens of the Egyptians…”
    *Genesis 8:7 : Then he sent out a raven and it *went forth (wayyese) *going out (yāsō*w) and returning
    until the waters had dried up from the earth.
    *Genesis 12:4: So Abram *departed (verb: halak, to go, come, walk) as the LORD had spoken to him and
    Lot *went (halak) with him. Abram was seventy-five years old when he departed (sêtow, verb: yasa)
    from Haran.
    rescue wehissalti (nātsal) Strong’s H5337
  • To be saved, delivered; spared; to plunder, take/tear away;
  • to be snatched, to strip off oneself
  • “To deliver/save human beings from a time of danger, often from personal enemies or from a
    time of sickness. Even if the actual deliverance comes through a human leader or warrior, the
    Israelites know that God is ultimately the one who delivers. ‘Spiritual deliverance’ is not
    necessarily a prominent topic in the Old Testament, however the Prophets imply a “salvation
    beyond the here and now”. (Jeremiah 23:6; Isaiah 45:17)”. (Mounce)
    *Exodus 6:6 b : “…I will rescue ( wehissalti) you from their bondage…”
    *Genesis 32:11 {Jacob fears Esau} “Deliver (haslē*nî) me, I pray, from the hand of my brother, from
    the hand of Esau; for I fear him, lest he come and attack me and the mother with the children.”
  • Genesis 37:21-22 {Joseph and Reuben} : ‘But Reuben heard it and he delivered (wayyassilêhu) him
    [Joseph] out of their hands, and said, “Let us not kill him.” 22) And Reuben said to them, “Shed no
    blood, but cast him into this pit which is in the wilderness, and do not lay a hand on him.” That he might
    deliver (has*sî) out of their hands and bring him back to his father.
    redeem wegaalti (gaal) Strong’s H1350
  • to redeem, deliver, avenge, ransom
  • legal sense: concerning the redemption of property/persons.
  • -to function as a kinsman-redeemer
  • “The Lord will redeem us from our slavery to sin and by His love He will give us the freedom to
    serve Him. Our new name is ‘the Holy People’, the Redeemed of the Lord {Isaiah 63:9}. We
    should wear that name humbly.” (Mounce)
  • *Exodus 6:6 c : “…and I will redeem (wegaalti) you with an outstretched arm and with great
    judgements.”
  • Genesis 48:16 {Israel blesses Joseph’s son’s} : “The angel who has redeemed (haggō*’êl) me from
    all evil Bless the lads; Let my name be named upon them, And the name of my father’s Abraham and
    Isaac; And let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth.”
    6:6. Commentary
    1) Ibn Ezra, Ex. 6:6:1. “Wherefore’ ‘As I live so will my word live. I will redeem you with an arm
    stretched from the heavens to the earth.”
    2) Or HaChaim, Ex. 6:6:1. “ Moses was to tell the Israelites in the name of G_d that He was the
    attribute of Mercy and that He had decided to invoke this attribute on their behalf. As a result,
    He would lead them out of Egypt and perform the other stages which would complete the process
    of redemption.”
    3) Rabbeinu Bahya : “ The promise concludes with the words ‘ Who is taking you out of the land of
    Egypt….you will never credit anyone else including yourselves with having accomplished that
    feat.”
    4) Ramban, Ex. 6:6:2 “And I will deliver you from their bondage ‘ “The Egyptians will no longer rule
    over them at all, nor will they subject them to be a servant -under-tribute wherever they live.”

6:7
take welaqati (laqach) Strong’s H3947

  • take, receive; to be led away, to be captured; brought; to choose; to accept.
  • to take into/take by the hand; to grasp.
  • to take (as one’s own possession) , to get for oneself
    *Exodus 6:7a : “I will take (welaqati) you as my people…”
    *Genesis 8:20 : Then Noah built an altar to the Lord, and took (wayyiqqah) of every clean animal and
    of every clean bird, and offered burnt offerings on the altar.
    Genesis 12:19: “Why did you say, ‘she is my sister?’ I might have taken (wā’eq*qah) her as my wife.
    Now therefore, here is your wife; take (qah) her and go your way.”
    be wehayîtî (hayah) Strong’s H1961
  • -to be/become; happen/to be done; State of being/change of state, existence, occurring of
    events; “to come to pass”
  • “In a Covenant formula, God says to His people ‘I will be your God’ (Ex. 6:7). {Indicative of God’s
    self-revelation, i.e. ‘I Am Who I Am.’}} (This statement is) elsewhere followed by ‘you will be my
    people’ (Jer. 7:23).” (Mounce)
    *Exodus 6:7b : “…and I will be (wehayîtî) your God. Then you shall know that I AM the LORD your God
    who brings you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians.”
    *Genesis 8:6 : So it came to pass (way*hî) at the end of the forty days, that Noah opened the window
    of the ark which he had made.
    *Genesis 32:10 : “I am not worthy of the least of all the mercies and of the truth which you have shown
    your servant; for I crossed over this Jordan with my staff and now I have become (hātî) two
    companies.
    6:7 Commentary
    1) Ibn Ezra: “And I will take you unto Me’ – when you receive the Torah on Mount Sinai.”
    2) Ramban: “When I will redeem you with an outstretched arm visible to all nations, you shall
    know that it is I the Eternal Who performs new signs and wonders in the world, and that I AM
    Your G_d and for your sake I had so acted, for you are the portions of the Eternal.”
    3) Sforno: “…it is I, the Lord your G_d who leads you out and watches over you very closely, I AM
    THE ONE who will do everything that I promised.”

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